Dr. Repellent is scientifically and naturally formulated to bring out the best blend of the finest natural FDA-approved ingredients to protect the entire family from household pests and outdoor biting insects without DEET. Dr. Repellent is all-natural, free of artificial fragrances, dyes, parabens and preservatives. Dr. Repellent is accurately balanced to offer the fastest, most effective and lasting protection up to 3 hours. These are the ingredients that make Dr. Repellent the best natural insect control option:
Dr. Repellent Ingredients & List of Insects that It Can Repel / Kill
Cedar Leaf Oil (Thuja Occidentalis)
An evergreen, monoecious tree, 6-15 m high, with sprays, or branchlets, flat and spreading, dark-green and rather glaucous above, pale beneath, yielding a pungent, aromatic oil. The bark is gray-brown to reddish, fibrous, and with connected ridges. The wood is light and very durable. The leaves are composed of small scales, 1.5-4 mm long, persistent, appressed or adnate to the twig, imbricated in four rows on the two-edged branchlets, except on fast growing shoots. The scales are of two kinds on alternate or separate branchlets, one form awl-shaped, the other short, squamose, both having a small dorsal gland filled with a thin, aromatic turpentine. The underside of the leaves shows little or no concavity, and is lighter in color, without whitish stomatal lines. The flowers appear in May and June, mostly monoecious on different branches in very small, terminal, ovoid catkins. At the tip of the twigs, there may be a very small ovoid cone. The pollen cones are about 1-2 mm long, reddish, with 6-10 microsporophylls, each with 2-4 pollen sacs. The seed cones are 9-14 mm long, brown, maturing and opening the first year, terminal, and solitary; the cone scales are decussate, flat, and occur in 4-6 pairs, with only the middle, larger 2 or 3 pairs fertile. Each fertile scale bears 1 or 2 broadly winged seeds.
Citronella Oil (Cymbopogon Nardus)
Originated from South Asia. Refreshing and uplifting, Citronella is widely known for its insecticidal properties, but it is also helpful for fungal infections, indigestion and rheumatic pain. The lemony scent is good for headaches, fatigue and depression.
Lemongrass Oil (Cymbopogon Schoenanthus)
Originated from (South America). Sweet and lemony, with an earthy undertone, this oil has some antimicrobial effects, and has been used traditionally as an insect repellent. In aromatherapy, the scent of Lemongrass is soothing yet uplifting.
Peppermint Oil (Mentha Piperita)
PEPPERMINT (Mentha piperita) is a popular herb that can be used in numerous forms (ie, oil, leaf, leaf extract, and leaf water). Peppermint oil has the most uses, and use data on the oil are considered relevant to the leaf extract formulations as well. This herbal preparation is used in cosmeceuticals, personal hygiene products, foods, and pharmaceutical products for both its flavoring and fragrance properties. Peppermint oil possesses a fresh sharp menthol odor and a pungent taste followed by a cooling sensation. It also has a variety of therapeutic properties and is used in aromatherapy, bath preparations, mouthwashes, toothpastes, and topical preparations. Topical preparations of peppermint oil have been used to calm pruritus and relieve irritation and inflammation. Their frequent application to impaired skin could contribute to the sensitization rates seen. Numerous allergic contact dermatitis reactions to peppermint oil have been described, many of which are linked to both perioral and intraoral disorders. Although peppermint oil is known for its many properties, its role as a sensitizer should be recognized so as to aid in the diagnosis of both dermatitis and oral conditions and to allow the initiation of proper avoidance measures.
Peppermint is a soothing, cleansing ingredient. It is believed to balance pH levels on the skin’s surface and regulate the production of oil. Although concentrated peppermint oil can be irritating to infants, people with highly sensitive skin, or women who are nursing or pregnant, diluted peppermint oil (such as the levels used in Aidance products) is safe for all ages and skin types.
Rosemary Leaf Oil (Rosmarinus Officinalis)
An evergreen shrub up to 2 m high, cultivated for its aromatic leaves which are used as a seasoning. The leaves and flowers are the source of a volatile oil (Oil of Rosemary) used in the manufacture of perfume. The leaves are opposite, linear, up to 3 cm long, and very numerous. They are dark-green, glabrous and granular above, and are thick, obtuse, and tomentose beneath, with strongly revolute margins. The flowers are light blue or whitish, spotted with small purple dots inside, about 12 mm long, in short, axillary, more or less tomentose racemes, and borne in the early spring. The tubulous corollas are two-lipped, with the upper lip 2-cleft, and the lower lip strongly 3-lobed, with the median lobe concave and very wide. There are only two stamens, the anthers are elongated, with a single locule, opened by a single slit. The fruit consists of four, one-seeded, smooth, ovoid nutlets that develop from the four-lobed ovary.
Sunflower Seed Oil (Helianthus Annuus)
Originated from Mexico. Hailed for its high Vitamin E content, lightweight Sunflower Oil is a robust antioxidant and has traditionally been used as a skin emollient to help prevent scarring. Sunflower Oil is also a source of essential fatty acids, which maintain soft and supple skin.
Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Alternifolia)
Tea tree oil is the essential oil steam-distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia, an Australian native plant. In recent years it has become increasingly popular as an antimicrobial for the treatment of conditions such as tinea pedis and acne. Tea tree oil (TTO) (Melaleuca alternifolia) has been used recently as an effective topical application for the treatment of skin infections due to a variety of aetiological microbial agents, including mainly bacterial infections.
Derived from the Tea Tree, which grows in damp, muddy, lush areas, this oil was first used to ward off bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, and tropical skin threats. Long before science recognized its antiseptic properties, it was a staple healing ingredient to correct skin irregularities, counter infection, and protect wounds. Recent studies revealed its cicatrisant properties, promoting scar tissue development, and helping neutralize existing skin marks. Because of these recent discoveries, tea tree oil is a commonly used to benefit the skin.
Product Formulation and Development
Dr. Repellent® formulators made nature meet science and research meets innovation. They have over 20 years of experience in blending essential oils and natural ingredients. Because of this wealth of experience and knowledge, they know which oils and extracts work well together and at which percentage- this ensures the synergy needed for beneficial effects.
Dr. Repellent® is manufactured in a state-of-the-art 70,000 square-foot FDA and GMP-approved facility. Part of the unparalleled knowledge and expertise in natural ingredients is strict Quality Control. From laboratory to production staff, employees are all trained on GMPs, SOPs and all FDA rules and regulations. The manufacturing facility are regularly inspected by United States Food and Drug Administration, the State of Florida Health Department and the Department of Agriculture. It has an immaculate public record in which it has NEVER received any type of disciplinary action from any of this governing body.
Certified and High Quality Ingredients
Quality is the most important ingredient Dr. Repellent® incorporates in every bottle. It has an environmentally-safe composition of broad-spectrum, naturally-sourced, plant- and mineral-based insect killing/repelling ingredients.
Dr. Repellent® is produced using:
- 100% pure essential oils and Sulphur
- Free from permethrin, picaridin and DEET, NO artificial colors, fragrances, parabens, sulfates and phthalates
- Without testing on animals
The main criteria of Dr. Repellent® are quality, purityand integrity. All our ingredients have to be of premium quality in order to ‘work’ so the sourcing of essential oils and the naturals is vital. The formulators of Dr. Repellent® made NO compromises in the ingredient selection nor cost of the highest caliber raw materials.
The extraction of essential oils and dilution of sulphur present in Dr. Repellent® formula are the key points which determines the quality of the oil that is used, since a wrongly executed extraction, can damage the oil, and alter its chemical signature and a wrongly diluted sulphur can alter the potency and effectiveness of Dr. Repellent®.
Dr. Repellent® delivers its promise 100% to utilize ingredients in which purity and potency are maintained to create the best natural insect spray.
Ingredient Profile of Dr. Repellent®
This section presents a collection of evidence-based information on different plant and mineral ingredients of Dr. Repellent®. It contains the following information to provide an extensive insight on relevance and significance of each ingredient:
- common names, botanical names and related terms
- properties, composition, extraction process and precaution
- therapeutic and non-therapeutic uses
- mechanism of action specific to Dr. Dr. Repellent®
CEDAR LEAF OIL (Thuja Occidentalis)
Names: Cedar, Swamp, White, Northern White, Eastern White Cedar, Cedar leaf, Tree of life and American Arborvitae
Species: Thuja occidentalis L., fam. Cupressaceae
Other name: Thuja Oil
Origin: North America
Cedar is very popular ornamental plant used in constructing gardens and landscape design projects. It is basically a coniferous tree that grows 6-15 meters high. The tree bark is fibrous with connected ridges and has gray-brown to reddish tones. The wood is light and very durable. The leaves are composed of small scales, 1.5-4 mm long, persistent, appressed or adnate to the twig, imbricated in four rows on the two-edged branchlets, except on fast growing shoots.Oil properties
Cedar leaf oil has a fresh, camphoraceous, fruity aroma. It slightly resembles flowering tansy and dalmatian sage. The sweet low notes resemble bitter fennel.Extraction
Cedar leaf oil is extracted from the fresh leaves by steam distillation.Chemical composition
The main chemical components of Thuja oil are alpha thujone, beta thujone, alpha pinene, camphene, delta sabinene, fenchone, camphone, terpinen-4-ol and bornyl acetate.
Mechanisms of Action
Cedar leaf oil has earned a significant place in herbal and homeopathic system of medicine. It has the following mechanisms of action:
- Insecticide/Repellent: The toxicity of this oil can kill insects and keeps them away from households. This is as true for parasitic insects like mosquitoes, lice, ticks, fleas, bed bugs etc. as it is for other insects found in households like cockroaches, ants, white ants, moths etc. This oil can replace those costly synthetic chemicals in the mosquito and cockroach repellent sprays, fumigants and vaporizers. (See How It Works)
- Anti-Rheumatic: Cedar leaf oil has two (2) significant properties that provide relief from rheumatism, arthritis and gout. The occurrence of these conditions are due to deposition of uric acid in the muscles and joints and improper and obstructed circulation of blood and lymph. Cedar leaf oil is primarily a detoxifier through its diuretic property it possesses. It causes an increase in urination and thus speeds up the removal of the toxic and unwanted substances such as excess water, salts and uric acid from the body through urine. The stimulant property of cedar leaf oil incites flow of blood and lymph and improves circulation. This prevents uric acid from accumulating.
- Astringent: Astringent is a substance that can induce contraction or shrinkage of muscles (tissues), nerves and even blood vessels and sometimes produces a cooling effect. Astringents intended for external applications induce local contractions. When cedar leaf oil is ingested or mixed into the bloodstream, it induces contractions in gums, muscles, skin and at the roots of hair which strengthens hold of gums on teeth, makes muscles firm and gives a lift to the skin, prevents hair fall and makes you feel fit and younger. Further, it makes the blood vessels to contract which can slow down or stop hemorrhage from torn or cut vessels.
- Diuretic: Cedar leaf oil can cause diuresis wherein it increases frequency and quantity of urination that promotes detoxification. This action contributes to the body’s health and wellness because it keeps it free of diseases as it removes unwanted water, salts and toxins like uric acid, fats, pollutants and even microbes from the body. It helps treat diseases such as rheumatism, arthritis, boils, moles and acne which are commonly caused by accumulation of these toxins. It can also be used in weight management by eliminating water and fat to get rid of swelling and edema. Furthermore, the calcium and other deposits in the kidneys and urinary bladder are washed away by urine. This prevents formation of stones and renal calculi.
- Emenagogue: This action is beneficial to women who need relief from obstructed menses, abdominal pain, cramps, nausea and fatigue associated with menstruation. It also promotes regularity of menstrual period and keeps the female reproductive organs in good health by promoting secretion of certain hormones like estrogen and progesterone.
- Expectorant: Cedar leaf oil helps in expectorating or expelling phlegm and catarrh inside the lungs and along the respiratory airways. It aids in clearing the chests from congestion, promotes ease of breath and relief from cough.
- Rubefacient: This action is an outcome of cedar leaf oil’s irritant property which is rooted from its stimulating property. This oil causes mild irritation on the skin and invigorates circulation of blood beneath the skin which causes skin flushing. This effect is more visible on the face, thus it is called rubefacient, meaning “red face”. As a result it makes the skin look more vibrant, aids in regeneration and rejuvenation due to well-circulation of blood flow.
- Stimulant: Aside from invigorating blood circulation, it also stimulates secretion of hormones, enzymes, gastric juices, acids and bile as well as stimulates peristaltic motion, nerves, heart and the brain. It catalyzes regeneration of growth cells, erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets. Overall, it stimulates the entire body making it more active and alert. It also improves metabolism which promotes better growth and protection against diseases.
- Tonic: Cedar leaf oil tones and fortifies, therefore it is considered a tonic. It tones up anabolic and catabolic types of metabolism to improve the condition of liver, stomach and intestines. It also tones up the excretory, endocrinal and nervous systems of the body to ensure proper excretion and secretion of hormones and enzymes. Lastly, it tones up the immune system to protect the body from infections better.
- Vermifuge: The presence of thujone in this oil can also kill the worms in the body such as round worms, tape worms and hook worms.
- Other Benefits: Cedar leaf oil can also be used to treat coughs, cystitis and warts, moles, abnormal cellular growths, some forms of skin cancers and polyps.
Cedar leaf oil should not be used without medical supervision as it may cause an abortion by reflex uterine contractions.
CITRONELLA OIL (Cymbopogon Nardus)
Names: Blue Citronella Grass, Citronella Grass, Tussocky Guinea Grass, Naid Grass
Species: Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (Ceylon/Lenabutu type), fam. Poaceae (Gram.)
Part : Grass
Origin: Sri Lanka
This essential oil has always been typecasted as an insect repellant (particularly for malaria- carrying mosquitoes, Anopheles). It has other great benefits such as clearing the mind, refreshing rooms, softening skin, preventing oily skin and sweaty feet. It is extracted from a hardy grass, native to Sri Lanka. This aromatic perennial grows about 1meter (3 feet) high and is a popular ingredient in wax candles, as an insect repellant, and is also widely used in perfumes, soaps, skin lotions and deodorants.Oil properties
Citronella oil has a slightly sweet, fresh grassy aroma with hints of lemony smell.Extraction
Citronella oil is extracted by the steam distillation of finely chopped fresh, dried or part-dried grass.Chemical composition
The main chemical components of citronella oil are citronellic acid, borneol, citronellol, geraniol, nerol, citral, citronellal, camphene, dipentene and limonene.Mechanisms of Action
Apart from being used as a flavoring agent for foods & beverages, it has varied mechanisms of action and benefits, which are listed below:
- Insecticide/Repellent: This is one of the most used properties of this essential oil, as it kills and keeps away insects, therefore preventing bites. It has been found that Citronella oil masks carbon dioxide and lactic acid in humans – two scents that are attractive to mosquitoes. It is particularly effective on a species of mosquito, called Aedes Aegypti whose bite causes the dreaded Yellow Fever. This is also effective on body and head louse, fleas and many others. (See How It Works)
- Anti-bacterial: Citronella has been found that it can kill bacteria and inhibit bacterial growth in the body. It has a component called methyl isoeugenol which is responsible for this action. This is particularly helpful in treating infections in wound, colon, urethra, urinary bladder, stomach, intestines, urinary tracts, prostrate and kidneys.
- Anti-depressant: The aroma of this oil uplifts the mood thus, it fights depression and gives relief from anxiety, sadness, and other negative feelings. It elicits fresh, happy feeling and feeling of hope.
- Antiseptic: The antiseptic properties of this essential oil fights infections in the wounds, urinary tracts, urethra, prostrate and kidneys.
- Anti-spasmodic: It relieves spasms of the muscles, respiratory system and the nervous system. It also helps cure menstrual spasm and gives relief from symptoms such as cramp, coughs etc.
- Anti-inflammatory: It suppresses inflammation particularly the kind that affects the liver, stomach, intestines and other parts of the digestive system. This oil can also be used to subside inflammation caused by side effects of drugs, excessive use of alcohol or narcotics, spicy food, disease or any toxic element in the body.
- Deodorant: The crisp, rich citrus or lemon like aroma of this oil effectively eliminates repulsive body odors that is why it is commonly found in deodorants and body sprays in very small quantities. Heavy concentration may give skin irritations. It can also be mixed with the bathing water to acquire a refreshing, body scent.
- Diaphoretic: The diaphoretic property of this essential oil increases sweating and promotes removal of toxins and other unwanted stuff like excess water, fat and salts from the body. This makes the body feel lighter, keeps the skin healthy and also reduces fever. This also protects you from certain infections.
- Diuretic: Citronella oil can increase the frequency and quantity of urination which in return, has many benefits. It flushes out waste substances and toxins from the body, such as uric acid, excess bile, acids and salts as well as water and fats. This can also help reduce weight, drain out infections in the urinary system, reduce chances of renal calculi, rheumatism and arthritis, improves digestion and keeps the heart healthy.
- Febrifuge: The combined diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties of this oil creates an antipyretic effect. It effectively lowers fever and redjuces body temperature.
- Fungicidal: This oil kills fungus and inhibits fungal growth. This is beneficial in countering fungal infections in the ear, nose and throat. It also helps cure fungal dysentery.
- Stomachic: The use of this oil promotes overall wellness of the stomach. It prevents occurrence of infections and other problems that can hinder its function.
- Stimulant: The stimulating effect of citronella oil incites blood circulation, secretions and discharges like hormones and enzymes from the glands, brain and the nervous system and other functions. This also stimulates the immune mechanism and the metabolism of the body.
- Tonic: This property promotes overall toning effect on the body. It tones up digestion, excretion, nervous system and the brain and fortifies the body.
- Vermifuge: Citronella oil can kills intestinal worms when administered in small doses to children. It is effective on both round worms and tape worms. The infestation of worms inside the body can inhibit normal physical and mental growth and absorption of nutrients by the body. By using this oil, it prevents obstruction of growth by killing the worms.
- Other Benefits: This oil can also be used in treating problems like oily skin, oily hair, abnormal palpitations, colitis, migraine, neuralgia, fatigue, headache, nausea, and abdominal pain resulting from gas or cramps.
Citronella oil is not toxic but may cause skin sensitization and dermatitis to certain individuals if used in higher concentrations. It should not be used on skin of children below two months and should be avoided during pregnancy.
LEMONGRASS OIL (Cymbopogon Citratus)
Names: Lemon grass, Barbed Wire Grass, Silky Heads, Fever Grass, Tanglad, Hierba Luisa
Species: Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (C. flexuosus), fam. Poaceae (Gramineae)
Origin: India, Southeast Asia and Oceania
Lemongrass is a perennial fast-growing aromatic grass, growing to about 1 meter (3 feet) high with long, thin leaves. It produces a network of roots and rootlets that rapidly exhaust the soil. The culms (stems) of this dense, clump-forming grass have been used in cooking and herbal medicine for centuries. More recently, the aromatic oils of the plant have been extracted and exported for use in perfumes. It also showed success in fighting jet lag, repairing skin with cellulite, revitalizing a tired body and mind, as well as keeping the family pet free of fleas and ticks.Oil properties
Lemongrass oil has a lemony, sweet smell and has dark yellow/amber/reddish in color.Extraction
Lemongrass oil is extracted from the fresh or partly dried leaves by steam distillation.Chemical composition
The main chemical components of lemongrass oil are myrcene, citronellal, geranyl acetate, nerol, geraniol, neral and traces of limonene and citral.Mechanisms of Action
Lemongrass oil is most popular in Asian, African and American continents for its culinary and medicinal uses. Lemongrass oil is a very versatile oil and has indispensable, wide-range uses written as follows:
- Insecticide/Repellent: Lemongrass contains citral, an aroma compound that gives it a citrus quality. Citral has a toxic effect on the sensory nervous system in insect antennae that affect the behavior and psychology of insects. Repellent activity was attributed to the citral content. Other experiments have evaluated the oil as an insecticide. The mosquito-repellent effect of lemongrass was evaluated in a study using Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes and differing concentrations of lemongrass oil in liquid paraffin. It is also very effective insecticide against ticks, termites and dust mites. (See How It Works)
- Analgesic: Lemongrass has exhibited analgesic effects in many studies. It has reduced pain and inflammation which can often lead to diseases. It helps relieve pain in muscles and joints, as well as toothaches and headaches resulting from viral infections like cough, cold, influenza, fever, and various poxes. It also helps cure general body pain resulting from strenuous activities and athletics.
- Anthelmintic: This oil showed a potent anthelmintic effect on flatworms.
- Antibacterial: Several reports describe antimicrobial effects of lemongrass, including activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The effects are attributed in part to the geraniol (alpha-citral) and neral (beta-citral) constituents.
- Anticancer: Antimutagenic properties of ethanol lemongrass extracts against certain S. typhimurium strains have been demonstrated, while in other studies, the extract was shown to inhibit DNA adduct formation in colon but not liver cells. In another experiment, ethanol extracts reduced the number but not the size of lesions in livers with induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies have demonstrated toxicity and apoptosis-inducing action of the essential oil and extracts against human leukemia cells.
- Antifungal: Lemongrass can also kill and inhibit growth of fungus. The citral it contains is responsible for inhibitory and lethal effects on dermatophytes such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum. Dermatophytes are fungi that can cause infections of the skin, hair, and nails due to their ability to utilize keratin. The organisms colonize the keratin tissues and inflammation is caused by host response to metabolic by-products.
- Anti-inflammatory: The topical application of lemongrass oil can result to a potent anti-inflammatory effect that inhibits inflammatory response as confirmed by histological analyses. It can also relieve and decrease symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
- Antioxidant: Lemongrass oil has demonstrated antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities.
- Astringent: Lemongrass can also act as an astringent by promoting contraction gums, hair follicles, muscles, skin and blood vessels, thereby preventing loosening and falling out of teeth, hair loss and it reduces the flow of blood through the vessels.
- Carminative: Lemongrass oil is also beneficial to the digestive system as it enhances digestion and relieves flatulence. It also helps cleanse vital organs such as kidney, pancreas, liver and bladder by expelling toxic substances.
- Deodorant: In comparison to synthetic deodorants, lemongrass oil is a far better choice versus expensive deodorants with limited lasting power. These types of deodorant can darken and irritate the skin and exacerbate certain allergies. Lemongrass oil does not do any of these things. It is an efficient deodorant without any side effects when diluted accordingly. It is completely natural and does not heavily impact the environment.
- Diuretic: Similar to citronella, this oil also increases urination, both in frequency and in quantity which is beneficial for health. In the process of urination, fats are lost from the body because 4% of the volume of urine is composed of fats. Urination also promotes digestion, inhibits the formation of excess gas, removes excess water from the body, removes toxins, reduces swelling and lowers blood pressure.
- Febrifuge: As an antipyretic, lemongrass helps reduce very high fevers from colds and flu especially when it is beginning to reach dangerous levels. That’s how lemongrass also became known as fever grass.
- Galactagogue: Lemongrass oil has a Galactogogue effect. It can help increase milk production for lactating mothers. Aside from increasing milk production, it also protects babies from acquiring infections. The antimicrobial and antibacterial properties of Lemongrass oil are absorbed in the milk and thus indirectly helps the babies.
- Nervine: This oil also acts as a tonic for the nerves and the nervous system in general. It helps cure many nervous disorders such as shaking hands or limbs, nervousness, vertigo, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and convulsions, sluggishness, and lack of reflexes. It strengthens the nerves throughout the body and stimulates them.
- Sedative: Lemongrass oil has a sedative effect which is greatly appreciated medicinal property. It has a great soothing and calming effects on the mind that relieves tension and anxiety. It can also help patients with insomnia.
- Tonic: Lemongrass oil is a tonic that influences and helps keep body systems working properly, including the respiratory, digestive, nervous, and excretory systems. It also allows nutrients to be absorbed into the body, which keeps the immune system strong and robust.
- Other benefits: It also is used for clearing up oily skin and acne, as well as athlete's foot. It alleviates excessive perspiration.
Lemongrass oil can irritate a sensitive skin of certain individuals, so care should be taken. Like cedar leaf oil, it should be avoided by pregnant women due to possible irritation. It can also be toxic to cats so consult a veterinarian prior to use.
Dr. Repellent® guarantees low chances of sensitization because it utilizes the therapeutic-grade lemongrass oil in the formula.
Mineral oil is a colorless, odorless, harmless and beneficial ingredient that is commonly used in numerous skin care and personal care products because it rarely causes skin sensitization. There were studies conducted on this substance and have found that mineral oil and petrolatum (a semi-solid form of mineral oil more commonly known as Vaseline) can be beneficial in wound healing, and are among the most effective moisturizing ingredients available.
Mineral Oil as an Insect Control Agent
Although the main function of mineral oil in Dr. Repellent® formula is to stabilize the active ingredients but apparently, mineral oil can also be used to manage pests and diseases of plants. Regardless of the source or type of oil, whether it is plant- or petroleum-based, all oil-based products have a similar mode of action. Insecticidal \oils kill insects on contact by disrupting gas exchange (respiration), cell membrane function or structure. They also kill them by disrupting their feeding on oil-covered surfaces. Their toxic action is more physical than chemical and is short-lived. When used against plant pathogens, oils may smother fungal growth and reduce spore germination on treated surfaces. They are mostly fungistatic, stopping fungal growth rather than killing the pathogens.
Petroleum itself is a natural ingredient that comes from the earth, and that once it is processed and becomes cosmetic- or pharmaceutical-grade mineral oil, its chemical properties no longer bears any resemblance to petroleum itself. Mineral oil used in cosmetics, personal care and baby care products are highly purified and completely safe.
An environmental dilemma concerning the use of mineral oil has surfaced in which people cited concerns that process it takes to extract it is detrimental to the environment, and that it is a non-renewable resource. To clarify this claim, mineral oil is not a resource, it is a byproduct of the petroleum industry. The primary reason for drilling oil is absolutely not to use it for moisturizing products. Mineral oil is extracted and purified from the petroleum refining process that occurs within other industries. The process of extracting and purifying mineral oil to make it suitable for cosmetic or pharmaceutical use is similar to the process of extracting and processing coconut and other plant oils.
The concern regarding consumption of mineral oil and its nature being a “non-renewable” ingredient is nothing compared to the increasing use of vehicles, cooking with gas, heating system at home, traveling by plane and usage of plastic packaging – all of which involve refining of petroleum.
Mineral Oil as Comedogenic Substance
Over the years, the dermatological society associates mineral oil with petroleum and has caused people to have this notion that mineral oil is harmful to the skin because it clogs the pores or ages the skin.
The results of a recent study published in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, states that: “The comedogenic potential of a variety of skin care products such as facial cleansers, lotions, and makeup, containing mineral oil in concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 30% did not produce comedogenic or pimple-causing response. However, a greater concentration than 30% (industrial-strength) mineral oil did.”(Source: WebMD)
Dr. Repellent® formula guarantees that the mineral oil content in every bottle is no greater than the defined safety levels.
PEPPERMINT OIL (Mentha Piperita)
Species: Mentha piperita
Part: Leaves, Flowering tops
Method: Steam Distillation
Origin: Native of the Mediterranean, but is now also cultivated in Italy, USA, Japan and Great Britain
Plant descriptionPeppermint is a perennial herb that grow grows up to 1 meter (3 feet) high and has slightly hairy serrated leaves with pinkish-mauve flowers arranged in a long conical shape. It has underground runners by which it easily propagates. This herb has many species, and peppermint piperita is a hybrid of watermint (M. aquatica) and spearmint (M. spicata). Oil properties
Peppermint oil has a fresh, sharp, menthol or minty aroma with clear to pale yellow color.Extraction
Peppermint oil is extracted from the whole plant above ground just before flowering. The oil is extracted from a fresh or partly dried plant through the process of steam distillation.Chemical composition
The chemical components of peppermint oil are menthol, menthone, 1,8-cineole, methyl acetate, methofuran, isomenthone, limonene, b-pinene, a-pinene, germacrene-d, trans-sabinene hydrate and pulegone.Mechanisms of Action
Numerous health benefits of peppermint and peppermint oil have been studied and proved by the scientific community as compared to other essential oils. Some of the beneficial actions of peppermint are stated as follows:
Insecticide/Repellent: Peppermint oil is a very significant ingredient in Dr. Repellent® formula because it can repel/kill a broad spectrum of insects. The insect antenna or antennal sensilla is a major channel of sensory input, including receptors for volatile odors and pheromones. Sex pheromones play an essential role in the mating behavior of various insects. Moreover, can play an important role in the insect pest control. Peppermint oil can disrupt communication in mating behavior of insect by blocking the function of antennal sensilla and unsuccessful mating could lead to a lower population of insect pest.
Peppermint oil also possesses a very strong smell that is irritating to many harmful insects, thus repels them. Upon contact, peppermint oil is one of the monoterpenes that can be toxic via penetration of the insect cuticle or the respiratory system. The use of peppermint oil also resulted in malformation of the antennal segments and their associated sensilla and enlarge membranous joint between segments in the emerged adults. The antennae function as directional chemoreceptors, deformation of the antennal hairs stretches the membrane jointing the hair to the cuticle.
Peppermint oil is lipophilic in nature and accumulates with lipids, it has a strong morphogenic effect and disrupting adult development. The toxic and morphological inhibitory effects of peppermint oil may be due to suffocation and inhibition of various biosynthesis processes of the insects at developmental stages. As an insect growth inhibitor causing disruption of insect development and abnormal adults that were lead finally to death.
- Carminative: Peppermint oil is very helpful in digestion. It is carminative and therefore helps in removing gas. Peppermint oil is a good tonic for those who have a low appetite. It also helps during motion sickness and upset stomach.
For the digestive system, peppermint oil is effective for a range of ailments, as it stimulates the gall bladder and the secretion of bile. It is used for colic, cramps, dyspepsia and spastic colon.
- Antiseptic: Peppermint oil, due to its antiseptic properties, is useful for dental care. It removes bad breath and helps teeth and gums deal with germs. No wonder, it is added in numerous toothpastes.
- Respiratory Problems: Menthol, which is present in abundance in peppermint oil, helps in clearing the respiratory tract. It is an effective expectorant and therefore provides instantaneous, though temporary, relief in numerous respiratory problems including nasal congestion, sinusitis, asthma, bronchitis, cold and cough. As a result, it is used in numerous cold rubs. When these cold rubs are rubbed on the chest, they remove nasal and respiratory congestion immediately.
- Antiemetic: Peppermint oil is a good home remedy for nausea.
- Anti-stress: Like most other essential oils, peppermint is able to provide relief from stress, depression and mental exhaustion due to its refreshing nature. It is also effective against anxiety and restlessness.
- Muscle Relaxant: The muscle relaxing property of peppermint oil has been found to ease IBS. This has been validated through preliminary scientific research though the exact mechanism is still unknown.
- Antispasmodic: Peppermint oil is very effective for gastroscopy, colonoscopy and during double-contrast barium enema. It is applied intraluminally. Further benefits of peppermint oil due to its antispasmodic properties are being studied.
- Analgesic and Antipyretic: Peppermint oil can be used externally for providing relief from pain. It is believed that the presence of calcium antagonism in peppermint oil aids in removing pain. Applying peppermint oil in diluted form on the forehead is known to remove pain from toothache, headache, migraine, aching feet, rheumatism, neuralgia, muscular pains and painful periods. Its cooling nature helps reduce fever.
- Tonic: Peppermint oil increases your immunity to diseases and therefore helps you in preventing a number of diseases.
- Anti-dandruff: Peppermint oil is very useful for hair care as it gives a cooling effect to the head, and removes dandruff.
- Anti-depressant: This oil is excellent for mental fatigue and depression, refreshing the spirit and stimulating mental agility and improving concentration
- Anti-inflammatory: Peppermint oil is used to relieve skin irritation and itchiness and also helps to reduce skin redness, where inflammation is present. It is used for dermatitis, acne, ringworm, scabies and pruritus and also relieves itching, sunburn and inflammation of the skin, while at the same time having a cooling action.
- Other benefits: Peppermint oil contains Menthol, which is good for skin. It gives a cooling effect. Further it nourishes dull skin and improves oily skin.
It is further believed that peppermint oil is useful for treating cancer and tuberculosis.Precaution
Peppermint oil is non-toxic and non-irritant in low dilutions, but sensitization may be a problem due to the menthol content.
It can cause irritation to the skin and mucus membranes and should be kept well away from the eyes. It should be avoided during pregnancy and should not be used on children under two months without medical supervision.
ROSEMARY OIL (Rosmarinus Officinalis)
Species: Rosmarinus officinalis L., fam. Lamiaceae (Labiatae)
Method: Steam Distillation
Origin: Originally from Asia but is now cultivated in Morocco, France, Tunisia and Yugoslavia
Rosemary is a shrubby evergreen bush that grows up to 1.5 meters (4 feet) high with green-gray needle-shaped leaves and pale blue/lilac flowers that bees just love. The name is derived from the Latin 'Rosmarinus' or 'sea dew', as it is rather fond of water.Oil properties Rosemary oil is a clear oil that has a crisp, powerful refreshing aroma. Extraction
Rosemary oil is extracted from the fresh flowering tops by steam distillation.Chemical composition
The main chemical components of rosemary oil are a-pinene, borneol, eugenol, thymol, b-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, camphene, 1,8-cineole and limonene.Mechanisms of Action
At present, many medicinal preparations contain rosemary oil. The various, well-researched health benefits and actions of rosemary oil are listed below:
- Insecticide/Repellent: The eugenol and thymol content of rosemary oil makes it a contact poison to insects. Rosemary oil can be considered an acaricide and is relatively effective against insect and mite pests causing complete mortality at concentrations that cause no phytotoxicity to host plants. It has been shown that the aromatic vapour of rosemary oil has ovicidal and larvicidal effects. This oil is safe for humans and other mammals.
- Carminative: Rosemary oil is often used for indigestion, relieving flatulence, stomach cramps, constipation, and bloating. Rosemary essential oil is also thought to relieve symptoms of dyspepsia and it is an appetite stimulant. Furthermore, research has shown the essential oil to be detoxifying for the liver, and it also helps to regulate the creation and release of bile, which is a key part of the digestive process. It also stimulates blood flow and improves circulation, which can benefit the absorption of nutrients from food.
- Hair growth stimulant: Rosemary oil and rosemary teas are widely used for hair care in shampoos and lotions. Regular use of rosemary oil helps to stimulate follicles, making hair grow longer and stronger. It is also believed that rosemary oil slows down premature hair loss and graying of the hair. Therefore, it is an excellent tonic for bald people or those who are beginning to show signs on male pattern baldness.
- Antiseptic: Rosemary essential oil is a disinfectant and is often used as a mouth wash. It also helps in removing bad breath. By removing oral bacteria, rosemary essential oil can prevent gingivitis, cavities, plaque build up, and other damaging dental conditions.
- Skin care: Rosemary essential oil is not used in skin care as extensively as it is used in hair care, but it does have antimicrobial and antiseptic qualities that make it beneficial in efforts to relieve eczema, dermatitis, oily skin, and acne. Topical application of the essential oil, or regular massage with the oil helps in toning your skin and removing dryness. It can also give your skin a healthy, even glow when regularly applied, or when it is a main component of your moisturizers and other creams.
- Tonic: Rosemary essential oil is an excellent brain and nerve tonic. It has a pronounced action on the brain and the central nervous system and is wonderful for clearing the mind and mental awareness, while having excellent brain stimulant properties, as well as improving memory. It stimulates mental activity and is a good remedy for depression, mental fatigue and forgetfulness.
In a 2003 study, researchers found that of 144 test participants who inhaled rosemary oil during an exam displayed significantly higher cognitive function. This is why some researchers are beginning to explore the options for using rosemary oil as an alternative treatment for slowing down the onset of Alzheimer’s disease in certain patients because of this apparent connection between boosted neural activity and the essential oil.
Anti-stress: Aside from the relaxing nature of aromatherapy and general inhalation of rosemary essential oil, it has been proven to actually decrease the level of cortisol in the saliva. Cortisol is one of the main stress hormones that are released during the “flight or fight” response of the body to stress. Excess cortisol in the blood that may occur due to chronic stress can wreak havoc on the body, including its hormonal balance and the efficiency of the metabolism. A study released in 2007 said that inhaling rosemary oil and lavender oil for five minutes significantly reduced the levels of cortisol in the test subject’s saliva, which could seriously decrease the dangers inherent from chronic stress.
Antioxidant: Antioxidants are some of the most valuable defensive weapons of the body for fighting off infection and disease, so any food or essential oil that either adds to or stimulates the activity of antioxidants is a huge benefit to overall health. The same study which found that cortisol levels decreased after simultaneous massage and inhalation of rosemary essential oil also found that the scavenging free radical activity in the test subjects’ bodies also increased significantly. This means that regular use or inhalation of rosemary essential oil in aromatherapy sessions or in other ways can increase the strength of the immune system and help combat all of the diseases associated with free radicals, including cancer and heart disease.
Analgesic: The ability of rosemary essential oil to relieve pain has resulted in its extensive use in treating headaches, muscle pains, rheumatism and even arthritis. Massaging the affected area that is in pain with rosemary essential oil can give quickly relieve the pain. Vapor baths with rosemary oil are also found to be effective in the treatment of rheumatism. It has certain anti-inflammatory qualities as well, which makes it very good for relieving the pain from sprains and joint aches. Furthermore, it is known to stimulate blood circulation, which can relieve pain and also aid in coagulation of wounds for faster healing.
Aroma: Rosemary has a mesmerizing aroma, which makes rosemary essential oil an excellent inhalant. The oil is used in room fresheners, cosmetics, beauty aids, food, bath oil, candles and perfumes because of its unique and intoxicating aroma. When the oil is inhaled, it can boost mental energy and is also known to clear the respiratory tract. Many people spray a mixture of rosemary essential oil and water to remove bad odors from room and objects.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Recent research suggests that the use of rosemary essential oil’s antimicrobial qualities can help reduce the effects and recurring inflammation of the herpes virus. The herpes virus can quickly develop immunity to normal antiviral medication, so alternative methods are always being explored. A number of studies have now shown the essential oil of rosemary to be an effective option for reducing the symptoms of the Herpes virus in test subjects, and even affects the level of contagiousness of the virus.
Expectorant: The benefits of rosemary essential oil in treating respiratory problems are well-researched and supported. The scent of the oil has been shown to give relief from throat congestion, and it is also used in the treatment of respiratory allergies, colds, sore throats and the flu. Since rosemary oil also has antiseptic qualities, it is also effective for respiratory infections.
Other benefits: There are various other claims regarding possible health benefits of rosemary oil, including its usage for disorders in menstrual cycle, menstrual cramps, peptic ulcer, urine flow, prostate, gall bladder, intestine, liver, cataract, heart, sperm mobility, leukemia, kidney stones and associated pain. Research is currently being performed to study its potential in treating various types of cancers including those of the colon, stomach, breasts, and lungs.
Precaution: Rosemary oil should not be used during pregnancy and is unsuitable for people with epilepsy or high blood pressure.